Human Resource Development

Human Resource Development

LO1: Understand learning theories and
learning styles

Compare different learning styles

According to
study, every individual has their learning styles. One of the learning styles
is behaviorism. According to behaviorism, there exist scientific laws that
control stimulus and response connections in the behavior of all human beings.
Therefore, the learning style emphasizes that a trainer can maneuver natural
links in a preferred direction to enable a person to learn. Behaviorism is more
directed to teachers, curriculum planners, and trainers instead of the
learners. It argues that teachers should keep in mind the student’s
competencies when developing the curriculum (Arthur & Peterson, 2013). In
this case, the trainer or the teacher should draw up the curriculum based on
the learners’ behaviors as well as the matching assessment. Therefore, teachers
should pay attention to the various stimuli and the plan of teaching. In this
learning style, constant feedback is valuable, and the learner should be
rewarded rather than punished (Reid, 2005). Therefore, the teacher or trainer
should make sure that they get constant feedback from the student. Another
important aspect of behaviorism is that the assessment of the curriculum’s
effectiveness should be done through analyzing if the learning outcomes have
been achieved. In this case, the trainer should focus on the issue.

important learning style is cognitivism; initially, scholars did not emphasize
on it. However, over time people started to recognize the importance of mental
activity in human learning which led to the growth of cognitivism. Cognitivism
is different from behaviorism as it focuses on the learner and the teacher. It
provides insights to the student in the self-regulation of learning and also to
the teacher. According to research, educators and trainers should ensure that
the teaching materials match the learning style (Arthur & Peterson, 2013).
It is apparent that in case, a teacher uses the wrong materials in the learning
styles the students may find it hard to learn. Therefore, it is significant for
the teacher to understand the student’s learning style and diverge his or her
teaching style. The cognitivism learning approach requires that the teacher
takes up active learning methods. The teacher should also use various methods
to attract the learner’s attention. Another important aspect of the learning
style is that the student may seem to emphasize on the structure and concepts.
Students are required to utilize metacognitive approaches like concept maps and
diagrams to point out the pattern so as to assist in revision. 

are also three major cognitive learning styles. They include visual learners
tend to like processing and learning information through visual forms. The
students learn and remember through visualizing data. They can easily recognize
data in different ways. Moreover, they have a good understanding and remember
information presented in diagrams or any other visual method. Another group of
learners is auditory learners; they are different from visual learners as they
highly depend on their hearing capabilities (Wong, 2014). They learn well
through hearing and sharing information. Kinesthetic learners are also
different as they learn well by utilizing vast and small body movements. They
as well learn through experiences.

is another learning approach that is common among learners. The particular type
of learning style focuses on what the students do with the information obtained
to create meaning.  Some of the concepts
of the learning style include meaning, interpretation as well as understanding.
The learning style maintains that students actively create knowledge depending
on individual experience. Additionally, the learning style contends that a
person acquires knowledge based on the social environment (Arthur &
Peterson, 2013). Therefore, it means that a person learns based on personal
experience and social environment. Social interaction also tends to affect the
students’ learning.  It also affects
individual qualities such as their self-esteem and self-efficacy. Learning is
enabled by self-awareness, value, motivation, willpower as well as resilience.
The emotional aspect of learning is significant as students may at times relate
knowledge with their experiences and interests. 
Constructivism also emphasizes that a person’s experience is also
affected by people sharing the same space. In this case, if motivated
individuals surround a person he or she is likely to increase their engagement.  

the particular learning style, learners involve themselves in a new experience
as a constant change in activities. The activists tend to be impulsive and are
also likely to utilize try and error method when learning (Rayner & Cools,
2012). In this case, they tend to challenge themselves whereby, they move from
one experience to another within a short time (Sanghi, 2014). The learners in
this category also tend to be open-minded, and they do not like implementation.
Another learning style common among learners is the reflectors. The reflectors
appear to laid back, and they like first to think about a situation and analyze
it before they come up to a conclusion. The reflectors are also slower in
making conclusions compared to the activists.

are also good listeners, whereby, they tend to listen before speaking (Sanghi,
2014). They are also thoughtful; therefore, they tend to think before making
any decision. Another learning style is Theorists, whereby, a learner thinks
things through in reasonable steps. They also incorporate unlike and coherent
facts together. They are objective, and they do not like subjectivity and
disrespect.  The pragmatist is another
learning style, whereby, learners in this category appear to be eager to learn.
They find and try out new ideas, and they seem to be practical. Students in
this category also like problem solving and decision-making. Additionally, they
enjoy working in a team rather than individually. 

Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of transferring
learning to the workplace

The learning curve
is the time taken by an experienced individual to attain their objective in any
task (Armstrong, 2012). The learning curve is critical during the process of
planning and executing training programs. It can as well be used when preparing
and executing instruction programs.  The
rate at which every person learns depends on various things such as efficiency
of training, an individual’s experience as well his or her natural skill.

transfer is necessary for all the workers as it assists in building their
career goal. It also helps in leadership and decision-making. One of the
greatest ways that workers can exchange knowledge is through the workshop (Rees, Edwards &
Edwards, 2011).
They can share useful information and enhance their skill as well as building
efficiency. The learning curve at the workplace can be utilized in identifying
the performance gap and improve progressively as per the requirement. The
learning curve and knowledge transfer can assist in improving various areas in
the workplace. For instance, workers can enhance their decision-making skills
and their effectiveness at work.

learning curve is a graphical representation; it highlights the increase or
decrease of learning in regards to experience (Armstrong, 2012).
Many organizations use the learning curve to assess the impact of learning or
training program. It is used to identify the major elements of learners’
progress and create education policy. Most organizations utilize it to
highlight the standard elements of active learning.

companies have made it a habit of organizing learning sessions for their
workers. One way that they hold learning sessions is through holding seminars
where the workers meet and discuss various issues pertaining work. Hence, the
companies ensure that they invest time, fund and energy so as their workers can
have a competitive advantage in the industry. Therefore, the workers should
transfer what they learn from the sessions to the workplace (Rees, Edwards &
Edwards, 2011). The transfer of learning to the workplace assists in
adding value to the company. Another importance of transferring learning to the
workplace helps the workers in dealing with various challenges. The learners
may learn how to address problems during the training sessions, and they may
transfer this to the workplace. 

Assess the contribution of learning styles and theories when planning and
designing a learning event

There are
different learning theories; they include cognitivism, constructivism, and
behaviorism. The three learning methods differ in a variety of ways for
instance; constructivism focuses on how a person translates information.
However, cognitivism focuses on the trainer and learner. According to the theory,
for a person to understand, the trainer is required to utilize materials that
match a person’s learning skills and style (Arthur & Peterson, 2013).
Behaviorism is another learning theory; it emphasizes on the trainer rather
than the learner. It is important for the managers to ensure that they choose
the appropriate learning style and approach when planning and creating a
learning event. However, at times, it can be difficult choosing suitable
learning style or theory (Rees, Edwards & Edwards, 2011). Therefore, it is
important to use all learning styles when developing learning events.  Some of the areas that a company may improve
include the workers decision-making skills, teamwork as well as leadership
competencies. The success of a learning event is always measured by the way
people react to it. Therefore, it is significant for a company to focus on the
employees’ learning styles when developing a training event. Every person has
his or her learning style that needs to be considered in every event.

LO2. Be able to plan and design training
and development

Compare the training needs of staff at different levels in an organisation

Staffs at
different levels have diverse training needs. For instance, workers at the
management level prefer practical learning to help in the development of
skills. They also need the courage to assist them in gaining courage during the
decision-making process. They as well require performance review for
improvement in performance (Rees, Edwards & Edwards, 2011). The performance
review also helps in identifying work diversity. Another training requirement
at the management level is role playing so as to offer practical understanding.
Another level within an organization is operational level. One of the major
training requirements in this standard is performance correction. The
correction assists in bringing efficiency and adding value.

Assess the advantages and disadvantages of training methods used in an

organization needs to train their workers so that they can be able to face
challenges within the company. Organizations undertake various training
techniques that assist in employees’ enhancement. Although the training methods
have advantages, they also have a downside. One of the training methods is
performance appraisal. The particular training method assists the workers in
getting their motivation. Performance evaluation allows the manager to meet the
employees and discuss their performance (Tapamoy, 2009). They also offer a
structured procedure for a worker to highlight their goals and discuss issues
with the management. They also allow the employee to think through and plan for
the future.

the training technique may result into negative experience if it is not done in
the right way. It also time-consuming and this can lead to time wastage
(Tapamoy, 2009). It relies on personal assessment and at times people can make
mistakes. They can also be overwhelming for both the workers and management.

training technique common among trainers is role playing. Most of the managers
prefer role playing due to its incredible results. It offers the workers great
learning opportunities that assist them in their careers (Aswathappa, 2013).
The technique allows the managers to assess the employees so as to find out if
the understand what they have learned. The managers also try to find out if the
workers can apply the skills learned. Moreover, the process allows employees to
train in a safe environment. They as well help employees to connect and understand
one another. However, not all employees like role play as they feel make them
feel uncomfortable. It also requires a lot of compromises, and it can at times
affect the learning process.  

Use a systematic approach to plan training and development for a training

A systematic approach to training involves various stages.

first step is identifying the firm’s aim. In this case, the organization aims
at controlling the market using innovation and marketing (Rees, Edwards &
Edwards, 2011).
The company also plans to minimize the cost. Therefore, the firm will develop a
product that matches the clients’ preferences. Another major aspect that will
be considered is the cost of the product, which, the organization will ensure
that it is effective.

second stage will be identifying training need. The workers should be effective
so as to assist the company in attaining its goal (Rees, Edwards &
Edwards, 2011).
The manager will organize various training events for all the workers.

would also be important to develop a training strategy for workers in all the
departments. One of the most important elements that the workers will be taught
is how to run the production at a cost effective way(Rees, Edwards &
Edwards, 2011).
The learners will be taught how to increase their sales and how to project a
marketing plan.  The implementation
process is the last stage, where, the company will make use of the training

LO3. Be able to evaluate a training event.

Prepare an evaluation using suitable techniques

The evaluation of
the training program is important as it assists in understanding its
effectiveness.  The Management will be
responsible for evaluating the training program.  The process will take two immediately after
the training. In this process, the management will utilize the
decision-oriented evaluation system to assess the training program. In the
first evaluation stage, the management will analyze how important the event,
and the importance of the causes. Another step would be observation, whereby,
we will find out how the event could be improved so as the company can reap
high benefits (Rees, Edwards & Edwards, 2011). In the next stage, the management
will clarify the areas to improve. They will check the enhancements that the event
helped in implementing. It would also be important to check how much the
employees learned from the event. Moreover, they will consider the workers’
understanding, whereby, the management will check the relevance of the message
to the employees and if they can apply it. They will check the impact on the
performance, whereby, the management will assess the impact the program had on
their career.

will use both the qualitative and quantitative strategies to document the
event. In this case, the management will perform customer evaluation, whereby,
they will look at the improvements in the customer service. They will also
analyze the workers behavior so as assess the success of the entire program.

Carry out an evaluation of a training event

The process will
take place for one month so as to collect the needed information. The
objectives of the process will include, measuring the workers satisfaction and
their reaction. The firm will also measure the knowledge the workers acquired
by asking them questions. The management will ensure that the process is as
interactive as possible so as to receive positive results.  They will use both the qualitative and
quantitative strategies to document the event. In this case, the management
will perform customer evaluation, whereby, they will look at the improvements
in the customer service (Armstrong, 2012). They will also analyze the workers
behavior so as assess the success of the entire program. We will use charts to
train the workers as there are the most effective methods. We will also form
discussion groups where they will exchange ideas. 

The assessment process
was successful as it helped in understanding the success of the event. The
method used was effective as it matches the primary outcomes.

 It also matched the objectives especially in
finding areas where there were hitches. The quantitative alterations in the
workplace were analyzed so as to make sure that the program was fit. The
workers and the managers were able to present their grievances that helped in
improving the program. The workers were also interactive, and they were able to
exchange ideas that will assist them in their respective careers (Armstrong,
2012). However, some workers felt that the entire process was tiring.
Therefore, they avoided the program, which led to poor outcomes. It was also
apparent that some had an adverse effect on the other participants, which gave
the trainers a hard time in trying to contain them. The coach was forced to
meet the members so as to understand their needs. Although the coaches sought
to help them, some seemed to be stubborn, and they skipped the entire process.

LO4. Understand government led skills
development initiatives

Explain the role of government in training, development and lifelong learning

UK government has
been active in enhancing human resource in both private and public sectors.
They organize various training programs whereby; they send their experts. The
government works together with the industry training organizations that are tasked
with setting the skills standards. They also develop ways in which the training
process will take place (Local Economic and Employment Development Program
& Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Improvement, 2013).  They are as well involved creating approaches
and systems that assist in attaining and upholding financial viability.  The systems also make sure that employees
enter into practical training agreements.  
Investors in people is another project that is tasked with setting the
proper management process. They set standards that help the private and public
organizations understand how to lead and support their workers (Blandford,
2012). They are also taught how to ensure that their workers work towards the
firms’ goals and objectives. They have set up thorough assessment methods and
strategies that match the current market trends.

Explain how the development of the competency movement has impacted on the
public and private sectors

The government has
been on the front line in the improvement of both the private and the public
sector. The public and the private quarter have proceeded to share knowledge
and develop competencies to challenge the high development and competition (Rees,
Edwards & Edwards, 2011). The firms have highly invested in development as they are
trying to keep up with the competition. One of the companies is Georgia Armani,
which is the leading fashion house in the United Kingdom. They have developed
high customer care services, and they have regular performance appraisals. The
company also understands that so as to keep up with the current market, they
have to train their worker. Therefore, they hold regular employees training and
after that,  they evaluate to find out
the effectiveness of the program.

Assess how contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK government
contribute to human resources development for an organisation

The government has
introduced the various contemporary training initiatives. The efforts have
helped in enhancing the organizations’ human resource. For instance, the
companies can employ skilled workers and improve the capabilities of its
management.  They assist the companies in
offering both formal and informal training. For instance, the Industry Training
Organizations work together with the government to ensure that they develop
effective skills among their workers (Local Economic and Employment Development
Program & Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Improvement, 2013).  The government has also introduced internship
programs that allow prospective workers to work in the companies of their
choice as trainers. Every organization is required to offer internship programs
which can be payable or non-payable (Rees, Edwards & Edwards, 2011). The programs help
the workers to interact with different experts and gain job experience. The
company can then decide whether to help the individual after the training
program. The government has also encouraged the firms in improving how they
manage their workers. Businesses are needed to ensure that the employees are
treated as per the set standards.


Human Resource
development is a necessary study in the current world. Therefore, it is
important for any person planning to enter into the business sector to ensure
that they consider it. It explains various areas that define the employment
sector and how the management should handle its workers. In the UK, the
government has laid out measures to help in the development of human resource
in all organizations. This has contributed to high human resource performance.


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Arthur, J., &
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Aswathappa, K. (2013). Human
resource management: Text and cases
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Blandford, S. (2012). Managing
Professional Development in Schools
. Routledge.

Economic and Employment Development (Program), & Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development. (2013). Skills development and training in
. Paris: OECD.

Rayner, S., & Cools,
E. (2012). Style Differences in Cognition, Learning, and Management:

Research, and Practice
. Routledge.

C., Edwards, T., & Edwards, T. (2011). International human resource

Globalization, national systems and
multinational companies
Harlow, England: FT Prentice Hall.

Reid, G. (2005). Learning
styles and inclusion
. London: Paul Chapman.

Sanghi, S. (2014). Human
resource management
. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.

Tapamoy, D. (2009). Performance
appraisal and management: Concepts, antecedents and


Wong, L. (2014). Essential study skills. Australia : Wadsworth

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