Who did developmental researchers focus on studying because they assumed that the processes of development were universal?

Who did developmental researchers focus on studying because they assumed that the processes of development were universal?

a. Mexicans b. Europeans c. Canadians d. Americans

2. What is the current total fertility rate (TFR) worldwide?

a. 1.4
b. 2.8
c. 4.2
d. 5.6

3. What is probably the oldest known conception of the life course, written about 3,000 years ago?

a. the Dharmashastras b. the Bible
c. the Koran d. the Talmud

4. What is Freud’s theory of human development?

a. bio-sexual theory
b. psychosexual theory c. sexual stage theory d. libido-drive theory

5. According to the text, what is a researcher’s idea about one possible answer to the question of interest?

a. a scientific idea b. a hypothesis
c. a proof d. a law

6. When participants are provided with specific responses to choose from on a questionnaire, what type of format is being used?

a. open-ended question format b. closed-question format
c. stream of consciousness format d. multiple choice format

7. What recessive disorder results in non-normal shaped blood cells that clog up blood vessels and cause pain, increased susceptibility to disease, and early death?

a. Tay-Sachs b. trisomy-21
c. sickle-cell anemia d. malaria

8. A person with an XY pairing of chromosomes is a , whereas a person with an XX pairing of chromosomes is a .

a. male; female b. female; male
c. homogenetic inheritance; polygenetic inheritance d. polygenetic inheritance; homogenetic inheritance

9. Who are generally carriers of X-linked disorders?

a. females b. males
c. individuals who have been exposed to teratogens d. individuals with a trisomy

10. The structure that will form the structures that will provide protection and nourishment for the newly formed organism is the .

a. umbilical cord b. placenta
c. embryonic disk d. trophoblast

11. By the end of the third week the neural tube begins to form. This structure will eventually become .

a. the skull and torso b. legs and arms
c. the spinal cord and brain
d. lungs and the digestive system

12. Children born with chromosomal problems are almost always born to parents with .

a. the very same chromosomal problem b. similar genetic disorders
c. above average intelligence
d. no genetic or chromosomal problems
13. According to the text, oxytocin is released from the . a. fetus’s liver
b. mother’s uterus c. fetus’s placenta
d. mother’s pituitary gland

14. During what stage is the umbilical cord usually cut and tied?

a. crowning
b. active labor
c. transitional labor
d. The third stage of labor

15. Compared to other animals, the birth process for human beings is complicated by the . a. size of the infant’s head
b. infant’s muscle to fat ratio
c. amount of amniotic fluid expelled
d. mother’s expectation of the birthing process

16. What are the “soft spots” on a neonate called?

a. sutures
b. cranium areas c. fontanels
d. soft spots

17. How long does it take before the neonate has regained all of the weight that he or she lost right after birth?

a. 2 weeks b. 3 weeks c. 4 weeks d. 5 weeks

18. For American infants, what percent are born with an Apgar score of 7 to 10?

a. 52%
b. 64%
c. 76%
d. 98%

19. One way that neonates’ sleep is distinctive is that they spend a high proportion of their sleep in .

a. alpha stage sleep b. a coma-like sleep
c. a position that is face down
d. rapid eye movement (REM) sleep

20. In cultures where babies are held or carried around much of the day . a. prolonged episodes of crying are common
b. prolonged episodes of crying are rare
c. they cry because infants need time alone
d. they cry because they sense that their mothers are frustrated with them

21. Growth and development proceed from the middle of the body outward, which is known as the .

a. head first, body second principle b. cephalocaudal principle
c. proximodistal principle d. top-down principle

22. As described in the text, which of the following are appropriate methods to soothe an infant who is teething?

a. the use of a teething ring, a cold drink, or topical pain relievers b. the use of pediatric oral dentures
c. the use of children’s acetaminophen or ibuprofen d. the use of a cotton ball that is soaked in whiskey

23. is a tiny gap between neurons. a. A neurotransmitter
b. The synapse c. A dendrite
d. Myelin

24. When neuronal connections that are used become stronger and faster and the neuronal connections that are not used wither away, what is happening?

a. brain death

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