APA Referencing Style

APA Referencing Style

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APA Referencing Style

APA stands for the American Psychological Association. APA is an ‘author/date’ system, so your in-text citation for all documents (journal article, book, newspaper, e-book, web document, blog, magazine, court case) is derived from the author(s) surname and year of publication.

APA Referencing Style – Cover sheet

The APA title page includes Page Number, Running Head, Title of the document, the student’s Name, the university Affiliation, and author’s note.

APA Referencing Style-sample cover page
APA Referencing Style-sample cover page

The title should be centered horizontally and vertically. Per APA guide, you should not use contractions/ abbreviations in your paper title, and it should be 12 words maximum in length. In addition, it is recommended that students should avoid phrases that has little purpose; therefore, the title is kept concise and clearly describes what the essay/paper is about.

APA Referencing Style – The Body

On the next page, begin with the body of your paper.

  • Start by including a running title/page number
  • On the next line write the title to your paper (do not italicize, underline, or bold the title)
  • Begin with indented introduction. This paragraph presents the premise and problem upon which the paper was based.  An introduction goes into more detail about this researched problem than the abstract.
  • Begin a new paragraph addressing the problem in details (the primary subheading is bold and centered) This section shows how the research was conducted and run to address the problem. Be sure to address all point in the subsequent paragraphs ensuring that the reader is provided with the relevant supporting evidence.
  • Begin a new section with recommendations. Center and bold this subtitle.  This section gives you an opportunity to recommend the best course of action.
  • Begin a new paragraph with the conclusion. Center and Bold this subtitle. This section is a chance to conclude and interpret your findings.
    1. Draw conclusions and be sure to support how your research led to these conclusions.
    2. Discuss to what extent your thesis statement was confirmed or not reinforced by your findings.
    3. Determine the next steps to improve research for future studies by defining the limitations of the study.

NOTE: In-text citations are used throughout the body, which include the author’s surname(s) and the year of publication. Unlike MLA format, in APA, page numbers are not used in in-text citations.

APA Referencing Style-sample body page
APA Referencing Style-sample body page

APA Referencing Style – Headings Properly

Headings of a paper serve a very critical purpose because they organize your essay and make it to read and simple to locate different sections of information. In addition, they give reader a glimpse to the content and main ideas they are about to read.

There are 5 levels of headings in APA referencing style, each with different purposes and sizes

APA Referencing Style-Headings Properly
APA Referencing Style-Headings Properly

Level 1: It is the largest heading size

    • This is the title of your paper
    • The title should be centered and bolded
    • Use lowercase and uppercase letters where appropriate (called title capitalization)

Level 2:

    • Should be a bit smaller than Level 1
    • Placed against the left-margin
    • The title should be bolded
    • Use lowercase and uppercase letters where appropriate

Level 3:

    • smaller than Level 2 title
    • Use bold letters
    • Indented in from the left-side margin
    • Others words should be lowercase, only place an uppercase letter at the first word of the heading. Pronouns are exception because they should begin with a capital letter.

Level 4:

    • Bolded
    • Italicized
    • Smaller than Level 3 title
    • Indented in from the left margin
    • Others words should be lowercase, only place an uppercase letter at the first word of the heading. Pronouns are exception because they should begin with a capital letter.

Level 5:

    • Indented
    • Italicized
    • Smallest heading in your paper
    • Others words should be lowercase, only place an uppercase letter at the first word of the heading. Pronouns are exception because they should begin with a capital letter.

The basics of an in-text reference in APA:

  • Include author(s) and year of publication.
  • Use round brackets.

Example: (Martin & Rowel, 2018)

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APA Referencing Style-Reference List

You are required to provide the full bibliographic information at the end of your assignment for each source cited. References must be listed chronologically and in alphabetical order by author.

APA Referencing Style-Reference List
APA Referencing Style-Reference List
How to Cite a Book in APA

Each reference should include four elements: (1) Author/Editor/Producer (2) Date (3) Title of the work and (4) Publication Information.

Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title of the work. Place name: Publisher.

Edited Book, No Author

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.

Edited Book with an Author or Authors

Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals. K. V. Kukil (Ed.). New York, NY: Anchor.

A Translation

Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814)

Note: When you cite a republished work, like the one above, in your text, it should appear with both dates: Laplace (1814/1951).

Edition Other Than the First

Helfer, M. E., Kempe, R. S., & Krugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Article or Chapter in an Edited Book

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Citing an e-book from an e-reader

E-book is short for “electronic book.” It is a digital version of a book that can be read on a computer, e-reader (Kindle, Nook, etc.), or other electronic device.

APA format structure:

Author, A. (Year of Publication). Title of work [E-Reader Version]. Retrieved from http://xxxx or DOI:xxxx

APA format example:

Eggers, D. (2008). The circle [Kindle Version]. Retrieved from….

How to cite a Journal Article in APA

Items published on a regular basis, such as journals, magazines and newspapers, are known as serials or periodicals. Include the same elements as for a book, but exclude the publication information and add the volume, issue and page number(s) instead.

Each reference should include the following elements: (1) Author (2) Date (3) Title of article (4) Title of Periodical (5) Volume, Issue and Page numbers.

Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Article title. Title of Periodical, x(x), pp-pp

A journal article available online

Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Article title. Title of Periodical, x(x), pp-pp. https://doi.org/xx-xxxxxxx

Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Article title. Title of Periodical, x(x), pp-pp. Retrieved from http://…

Citing A Journal Article In Print

APA format structure:

Author, A. (Publication Year). Article title. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), pp.-pp.

APA format example:

Nevin, A. (1990). The changing of teacher education special education. Teacher Education and Special Education: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Council for Exceptional Children, 13(3-4), 147-148.

Citing A Journal Article Found Online

APA format structure:

Author, A. (Publication Year). Article title. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), pp.-pp. DOI:XX.XXXXX or Retrieved from journal URL

APA format example:

Jameson, J. (2013). E-Leadership in higher education: The fifth “age” of educational technology research. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(6), 889-915. DOI: 10.1111/bjet.12103

Article in Journal Paginated by Volume

Journals that are paginated by volume begin with page one in issue one, and continue numbering issue two where issue one ended, etc.

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

Article in Journal Paginated by Issue

Journals paginated by issue begin with page one every issue; therefore, the issue number gets indicated in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized or underlined.

Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(3), 5-13.

Article in a Magazine

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

Article in a Newspaper

Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style. Single pages take p., e.g., p. B2; multiple pages take pp., e.g., pp. B2, B4 or pp. C1, C3-C4.

Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.

Letter to the Editor

Moller, G. (2002, August). Ripples versus rumbles [Letter to the editor]. Scientific American, 287(2), 12.

Review

Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control, by R. A. Wicklund & M. Eckert]. Contemporary Psychology, 38, 466-467.

How to cite a Magazine in APA

How to Cite a Magazine in Print in APA

APA format structure:

Author, A. (Year, month of Publication). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue), pp.-pp.

APA format example:

Tumulty, K. (2006, April). Should they stay or should they go? Time, 167(15), 3-40.

How to Cite a Magazine Online in APA

APA format structure:

Last, F. M. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Magazine Title, Page(s). Retrieved from URL

APA format example:

Rothbart, D. (2008, October). How I caught up with dad. Men’s Health, 108-113. Retrieved from …

Folger, T. Higgs: What causes the weight of the world.” Discover Magazine,. Retrieved from ….

How to Cite a Magazine on a Database in APA

APA style does not require Database information in its citations. You would cite the source found within the Database, such as a magazine article or a photograph.

APA format structure:

Last, F. M. (Year, Month Published). Article title. Magazine Title. Retrieved from URL

Examples:

China’s export prospects: Fear of the dragon. (2010, January). The Economist. Retrieved from …..

Miley, M. (2008, December). Magazine’s we’ll miss. Advertising Age, 79(46), 19. Retrieved from …..

How to Cite a Magazine Published Directly Online in APA

APA format structure:

Last, F. M., & Last, F. M. (Year, Month Published). Article title. Magazine Title. Retrieved from URL

Examples:

Nasar, S., & Gruber, D. (2006, August). Manifold destiny. The New Yorker. Retrieved from …..

Bradley, K. (2012, December). The trick to tomatoes. Green Lifestyle Magazine. Retrieved from …..

How to cite a Newspaper in APA

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How to Cite a Newspaper in Print in APA

APA format structure:

Last, F. M. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Newspaper Title, pp. Page(s).

Examples:

Bowman, L. (1990, March 7). Bills target Lake Erie mussels. The Pittsburgh Press, p. A4.

Meier, B. (2013, January 1). Energy Drinks Promise Edge, but Experts Say Proof Is Scant. New York Times, p. 1.

How to Cite a Newspaper Online in APA

APA format structure:

Last, F. M. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Newspaper Title, pp. Page(s). Retrieved from URL.

Examples:

Bowman, L. (1990, March 7). Bills target Lake Erie mussels. The Pittsburgh Press, p. A4. Retrieved from …..

Meier, B. (2013, January 1). Energy drinks promise edge, but experts say proof is scant. New York Times, p. 1. Retrieved from…..

How to Cite a Newspaper on a Database in APA

APA format structure:

Last, F. M. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Newspaper Title, pp. Page(s). Retrieved from URL

Examples:

Anand, G. (2010, April 2). Fire and fumes can’t drive Indians from hellish village. Wall Street Journal, p. A1. Retrieved from …..

Carey, P. (2012, December 21). An apps-eye view of global warming and climate change. Contra Costa Times. Retrieved from ….

How to Cite a Newspaper Article Published Directly Online in APA

APA format structure:

Last, F. M., & Last, F. M. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Newspaper Title. Retrieved from URL

Examples:

Sutter, J. D. (2010, March 31). Why internet connections are fastest in South Korea. CNN Tech. Retrieved from …..

Zeitlin, M. (2012, December 29). The milk cliff explained: Why a gallon may soon hit $7. Newsweek. Retrieved from …….

How to cite a Website in APA

Citing a general website article with an author

APA format structure:

Author, A. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Article title. Retrieved from URL

APA format example:

Simmons, B. (2015, January 9). The tale of two Flaccos. Retrieved from ……

Citing a general website article without an author

APA format structure:

Article title. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Retrieved from URL

APA format example:

Teen posed as doctor at West Palm Beach hospital: police. (2015, January 16). Retrieved from …

APA format structure:

Last, F. M. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL

Example:

Satalkar, B. (2010, July 15). Water aerobics. Retrieved from …

Cain, K. (2012, June 29). The Negative effects of Facebook on communication. Social Media Today RSS. Retrieved from ….

How to Cite a Blog Post in APA

APA format structure:

Last, F. M. (Year Month Date Published). Article title [Type of blog post]. Retrieved from URL.

Example:

Schonfeld, E. (2010, May 3). Google throws $38.8 million to the wind [Web log post]. Retrieved May 4, 2010, from ….

China, The American Press, and the State Department [Web log post]. (2013, January 3). Retrieved from Schonfeld, E. (2010, May 3). Google throws $38.8 million to the wind [Web log post]. Retrieved May 4, 2010, from ….

How to cite a Film in APA

Citing a film/Citing a movie

APA format structure:

Producer, A. (Producer), & Director, A. (Director). (Release Year). Title of motion picture [Motion Picture]. Country of Origin: Studio.

APA format example:

Bender, L. (Producer), & Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax.

Citing a film from YouTube

APA format structure:

Author, A. [screename]. (Year, Month Date of Publication). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

APA format example:

Smith, Rick. (2013, September 20). Favre to Moss!. [Video file]. Retrieved from ……

How to cite an Interview in APA

APA works cited list:

Author, A. (Year, Month Date). Interview type.

APA format example:

Marino, B. (2014, October 18). Personal Interview.

How to cite an Encyclopedia in APA

Online Encyclopedia or Dictionary From Library Database – Known Author – No DOI

Author’s Last Name, First Initial. Second Initial if Given. (Year of Publication). Title of entry. In Editor’s First Initial. Second Initial if given. Last Name (Ed.), Name of encyclopedia or dictionary (edition if given and is not first edition). Retrieved from Database Name database.

Example Carruthers, E.P. (2002). Nursing. In Funk & Wagnalls new world encyclopedia. Retrieved from Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia database.
In-Text Paraphrase (Author’s Last Name, Year)

Example: (Carruthers, 2002)

Citing an encyclopedia entry in print

APA format structure:

Author, A. (Publication Year). Entry title. In Encyclopedia title, (Vol. XX, pp. XX). City, State of publication: Publisher.

APA format example:

Kammen, C., & Wilson, A.H. (2012). Monuments. In Encyclopedia of local history. (pp. 363-364). Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.

APA Sample Paper pdf

APA Sample Paper

APA Referencing Style

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